Education's hardest test: scaling up aid in fragile and conflict-affected states Rebecca Winthrop Susy Ndaruhutse Susy Ndaruhutse Susy consults on projects and research with Education Development Trust, having previously worked for the organisation as part of her 20 years’ experience of working collaboratively with low- and middle-income governments, multilateral and bilateral donors, and NGOs on policy, strategy, finance and capacity development initiatives. She strongly believes in drawing from the best available global evidence on what works, but consistently highlights the need to take local political, economic and social contexts into account to not only ensure that education systems are responsive to local needs, but that successful interventions leave a lasting legacy for future generations of young people. Janice Dolan Anda Adams This Policy Outlook outlines seven challenges that need to be addressed and recommendations for a way forward for donors and the international community Providing sufficient resources – overall aid for basic education needs to significantly increase to meet the estimated US$16 billion financing required annually and at least 50 percent of all basic education aid should be committed to and disbursed in countries affected by conflict and fragility by 2011. Supporting recurrent costs – there is a need to ensure aid modalities for conflict-affected and fragile states support recurrent costs by exploring options beyond budget support. Putting in place a viable international aid architecture – the FTI needs to evolve into a revamped and reinvigorated international aid architecture, which is able to effectively support fragile and conflict-affected states. Coordinating humanitarian and development aid – donors should ensure consistent policies and mandates to support education in humanitarian and development contexts and the transition between the two. Having long-term predictable commitments, whatever the context – fragile and conflict-affected states need to be able to plan for the future through the provision of long-term, multi year commitments and improving the predictability of aid. Supporting national-scale education plans and programs – through using flexible approaches and combining aid modalities in order to meet education service delivery needs and the long-term goal of building state capacity and ownership. Scaling up education programs – education programs in fragile and conflict-affected states need to be scaled up by using and creating innovative approaches to managing and disbursing aid that utilize the comparative advantages of various partners within countries.