Education's hardest test: scaling up aid in fragile and conflict-affected states Rebecca Winthrop Susy Ndaruhutse Susy Ndaruhutse Head of International Development and Education Susy's first 'proper job' involved her being sent to work in Rwanda's Ministry of Education for four years on behalf of Education Development Trust; unsurprisingly, today, she is Education Development Trust's authority on providing technical assistance to low- and middle-income countries and has particular expertise in fragile and conflict-affected states. Along with her team and associate consultants, she provides strategic policy, advisory and capacity building services and works with donors, developing-country governments and non-governmental organisations in the education sector. Janice Dolan Anda Adams This Policy Outlook outlines seven challenges that need to be addressed and recommendations for a way forward for donors and the international community Providing sufficient resources – overall aid for basic education needs to significantly increase to meet the estimated US$16 billion financing required annually and at least 50 percent of all basic education aid should be committed to and disbursed in countries affected by conflict and fragility by 2011. Supporting recurrent costs – there is a need to ensure aid modalities for conflict-affected and fragile states support recurrent costs by exploring options beyond budget support. Putting in place a viable international aid architecture – the FTI needs to evolve into a revamped and reinvigorated international aid architecture, which is able to effectively support fragile and conflict-affected states. Coordinating humanitarian and development aid – donors should ensure consistent policies and mandates to support education in humanitarian and development contexts and the transition between the two. Having long-term predictable commitments, whatever the context – fragile and conflict-affected states need to be able to plan for the future through the provision of long-term, multi year commitments and improving the predictability of aid. Supporting national-scale education plans and programs – through using flexible approaches and combining aid modalities in order to meet education service delivery needs and the long-term goal of building state capacity and ownership. Scaling up education programs – education programs in fragile and conflict-affected states need to be scaled up by using and creating innovative approaches to managing and disbursing aid that utilize the comparative advantages of various partners within countries.