Systems and structures Liz Slater This review looks at the way high-performing and improving education systems share out power and responsibility. Resources can be critical to achieving policy implementation. Resources – in the form of funding, capital investment or payment of salaries and other ongoing costs – are some of the main levers used to make policy happen, but are not a substitute for well thought-through and appropriate policy making. Nonetheless, having control over resources can be a key component of successful implementation of policy. This review asks how power is distributed; what governance structures high performing education systems have chosen (and how well these work); how funding is linked to the allocation of responsibilities within the system; and what can be done to ensure the effective and proper use of resources. This review also looks briefly at some models of private schooling, since they are used in many systems in conjunction with public education.